Careful planning and the fine tuning of experimental protocols are key to ensuring clear, interpretable scientific results. This is especially true for immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, where each step in the often multiday process – from tissue preparation to stain development – can significantly impact the final outcome and analysis. Often, the simultaneous examination of multiple antigens is required to address specific scientific questions, which further complicates IHC protocol development. A general understating of the steps necessary to optimize IHC for multiple targets is essential to achieve reliable results. So, what are these steps?
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease marked by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in the gene that encodes a ubiquitin ligase PARK2/Parkin are known to cause autosomal recessive forms of familial PD1. Parkin plays a key role in mitochondrial homeostasis by regulating a specialized form of autophagy called mitophagy, the clearance of defective or damaged mitochondria by lysosomes2.
How does altered mitochondrial homeostasis contribute to PD?
The massive amount of DNA in the human body is truly baffling. Stretched end to end, the DNA from a single somatic cell is about 2 meters in length, doing the same for all the DNA in the average human would reach the end of the solar system and back!
Cancer cells invade local tissue and spread to distant sites via two distinct, but similar processes known as invasion and metastasis.
Our immune system has the ability to detect and fight infectious pathogens. It can also detect when normal cells become cancerous and kill those cells, preventing cancer progression. But over time, cancers can evolve and evade the immune response.
Researchers use chromatin immunoprecipitation, or ChIP, to identify and characterize protein-DNA interactions in the context of chromatin. ChIP experiments can use varying input samples, chromatin fragmentation methods, and provide ChIP-qPCR or ChIP-seq readouts.
Immunohistochemistry, or IHC, remains the simplest method for detecting biomarker expression while maintaining spatial context within tissues. You know that getting reliable IHC staining results hinges on the specificity and performance of your antibody. These are high stakes experiments, and you want to be 100% confident your antibody will detect the target of interest.
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Some cancer cells adapt mechanisms to evade detection and destruction by the host's immune system. One way cells do this is by hijacking normal mechanisms of immune checkpoint control and modulation of the innate immune response via STING.
For generations of neuroscientists, using immunohistochemistry to study the brain in its anatomical context typically meant imaging a tiny slice at a time. Using the traditional method of taking micron thick sections, fixing, staining, imaging, and, finally, stitching all the slices together, is a super laborious task, especially for large tissues. But what if you could "look" into an intact mouse brain and identify specific cells and eliminate all of the slicing and stitching?
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby differentiated epithelial cells transform into cells with more mesenchymal characteristics, was first described by pioneering Harvard biologist Elizabeth “Betty” Hay in the 1980s.